Healthcare Practitioner COVID-19 Vaccine FAQs

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COVID-19 Vaccine-Specific Information

General Resources

Recommendations for Vaccine Use

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Can a breastfeeding individual receive the COVID-19 vaccine if their baby recently received routine immunizations?

The short answer to the question is YES, the individual can still get the COVID-19 vaccine. Here is some additional information about what we know about breastfeeding and the COVID-19 vaccine:

  • Based on real world data mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are safe during breastfeeding, NACI recommends breastfeeding individuals receive a complete COVID-19 vaccine series including booster doses with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, including original and bivalent as appropriate.
    • Recombinant protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine (i.e. Novavax Nuvaxovid™) may be offered if the individual is not willing or able to receive an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; however, safety and efficacy data of this vaccine in breastfeeding individuals are not available.
    • Viral vector (i.e. Janssen Jcovden™) COVID-19 vaccine may be offered if all other COVID-19 vaccines are contraindicated.
  • Initial clinical vaccine trials excluded lactating people, however data from international COVID-19 immunization registries have not revealed adverse safety outcomes for the breastfeeding individual or baby. 
  • In studies of mRNA vaccines given to breastfeeding people, no serious adverse effects were reported in infants or on milk production. Some participants reported irritability, poor sleep, drowsiness in their infants, but it was not shown that these side effects were caused by the vaccine.
  • Individuals who are breastfeeding should continue to do so after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine.
  • The components of the COVID-19 vaccines are not expected to enter the breast milk or be absorbed by the infant. If any small amounts of vaccine ingredients did enter the breast milk, they would most likely be destroyed in the baby’s stomach. In case you get asked, mRNA does not enter the breastmilk.
  • Antibodies may be passed along to an infant of a vaccinated breastfeeding individual. Individuals who receive an mRNA vaccine have marked increases in milk antibodies against SARS CoV-2 that potentially protect breastfed infants from infection. More data are needed to determine what protection these antibodies may provide to the infant. 


LAST UPDATED : 29 Dec 2022
Is taking Clozapine a contraindication to receiving COVID-19 vaccine?

There is no information reported in the literature that suggests being on clozapine would be a contraindication to receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. However, the following information may be helpful for clinicians and patients on clozapine to consider:

  • There are a few published case reports of increased clozapine levels post mRNA COVID-19 vaccination.1-5 A single case report demonstrated toxic effects following increased clozapine levels in an individual who received Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty®.In all cases, a causal relationship was neither determined nor ruled out. 
  • Another case report included an individual on clozapine who developed a tonic-clonic seizure after administration of the first dose of mRNA Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty® vaccine. While a causal relationship is difficult to establish, the patient developed a high fever post vaccination which likely contributed to the presence of the seizure in combination with increased age and taking clozapine, which is a seizure-threshold reducing medication. This patient received their second dose of COVID-19 vaccine with no problems after prophylactically treating with acetaminophen.6
  • All authors of published case reports still recommend COVID-19 vaccination in individuals taking clozapine due to risk vs. benefit of reducing morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. Additional monitoring post-vaccination may be indicated and could include temperature measurement, monitoring clozapine adverse effects, and clozapine drug levels.1-6
  • There are several case studies indicating that COVID-19 infection can be associated with increased clozapine levels.7,8  This may be attributed to infection-related inflammation inhibiting cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), which then slows clozapine metabolism.9  This does not speak to any concern about giving a COVID-19 vaccine, but may explain the mechanism of increased drug levels.

Based on available information, and taking into consideration the risk versus benefit, clozapine therapy would not be a contraindication to receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. It is important to ensure that the patient is aware of potential adverse effects, and monitor appropriately. 


  1. Thompson D, Delorme CM, White RF, Honer WG. Elevated clozapine levels and toxic effects after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2021 Mar 5;46(2):E210-E211. doi: 10.1503/jpn.210027.  
  2. Tomita T, Sakamoto Y, Saito M, Hashimoto K, Ono Y, Nakamura K. Two patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine developed neutropenia after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. Int Med Case Rep J. 2022;15:29-33
  3. Knöchel C , Hefner G, Stiehl T, Schmidbauer W. Elevated clozapine blood concentrations after second COVID-19 vaccination with Spikevax (COVID-19 vaccine Moderna). J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2022 May-Jun 01;42(3):317-320. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000001522. 
  4. Imai T, Ochiai S, Ishimaru T, et al. A case report: Clozapine-induced leukopenia and neutropenia after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Neuropsychopharmacol Rep. 2022 Jun;42(2):238-240. doi: 10.1002/npr2.12238. 
  5. Takaki M, Yada Y, Sakamoto S, Fujiwara M, Okahisa Y, Yamada N. A decrease of neutrophils after COVID-19 vaccination in a treatment-resistant patient with schizophrenia taking clozapine. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2022 May-Jun 01;42(3):324-325. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000001527.
  6. Makhlouf AT, Van Alphen MU, Manzano GS, Freudenreich O. A Seizure after COVID-19 vaccination in a patient on clozapine. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2021 Nov-Dec 01;41(6):689-690. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000001488.
  7. Cranshaw T, Harikumar T. COVID-19 infection may cause clozapine intoxication: case report and discussion. Schizophr Bull. 2020;46:751.
  8. Dotson S, Hartvigsen N, Wesner T, et al. Clozapine toxicity in the setting of COVID-19. Psychosomatics. 2020;61:577–8.
  9. Clark SR, Warren NS, Kim G, et al. Elevated clozapine levels associated with infection: a systematic review. Schizophr Res. 2018;192:50–6.
LAST UPDATED: 10 Nov 2022
Is it okay to get the COVID-19 vaccine if a patient is taking antiviral medication?

There is no reason to withhold inactivated vaccines for patients taking antibacterials or antivirals (including those active against COVID-19 [e.g. Paxlovid™, remdesivir]).

Antivirals prevent further replication of viruses. mRNA, protein subunit, and non-replicating viral vector vaccines do not contain live replicating virus so we would not expect a diminished response to the vaccine with prior or recent receipt of antiviral medication.

  • While individuals who have received COVID-19 antiviral treatment do not need to delay COVID-19 vaccination because of the antiviral, individuals should follow public health recommendations for interval between COVID-19 infection and vaccination. 


LAST UPDATED: 08 Nov 2022
If the deltoid is not a feasible injection site can another site be used?
  • All COVID-19 vaccines are to be injected intramuscularly and the deltoid is the preferred site for individuals 1 year and older.

    There may be instances when the deltoid sites cannot be used or are inaccessible. Examples may include individuals with:

  • Poor lymphatic circulation
    • These may include individuals with local lymphedema, upper limb amputation, axillary lymph node removal (which sometimes accompanies mastectomy), lymphangioma, arteriovenous (A-V) fistula
  • Poor muscle mass
  • Active cutaneous conditions (e.g. psoriasis plaques, inflammation, scars on the injection site)
  • Pain at the injection site
LAST UPDATED: 18 Jun 2021
LAST REVIEWED: 08 Nov 2022


Canadian Immunization Guide

Saskatchewan Immunization Manual

BC Centre for Disease Control

Dorsogluteal is NOT an acceptable alternative site.

This injection site is not used for active immunization because it is less immunogenic for vaccines.


Needle length

Needle length for IM injections is based on age, muscle mass and amount of subcutaneous tissue. For both deltoid and vastus lateralis:

  • 18 years and older: 1” to 1.5” (1” most common)
  • 5 to ≤ 17 years old: 1” (1.5” for heavier children)

If only one deltoid is affected, use the other deltoid.

If both deltoid sites are unsuitable for IM injection, the vastus lateralis is an alternative site.

Landmarking for vastus lateralis

  • With the individual in the seated position, visually divide the length of the muscle from the greater trochanter of the femur to the lateral border of the kneecap into thirds.
  • Visually divide the width of the outer thigh in two with a horizontal line.
  • The injection site is in the middle third, just above the horizontal line.
    • See the vastus lateralis landmarking demonstration video. 
Are the vaccines safe and effective considering they were developed so quickly?

Approval for the vaccines is following the usual processes to ensure safety and efficacy. The process could be expedited because:

  • more resources were made available
  • resources / work were shifted from other projects to focus on the vaccine
  • global agencies have been working together and sharing data


LAST UPDATED: 08 Nov 2022
What is the difference between a traditional vaccine and an mRNA vaccine?

A traditional vaccine delivers the antigen directly by using a weakened form of the virus, while the mRNA vaccine gives the "code" for the body to make the antigen. This then triggers the immune response to make antibodies, which in turn help to fight the virus if exposed at a later date.


LAST UPDATED: 19 Mar 2021
LAST REVIEWED: 08 Nov 2022

Pediatric COVID-19 Vaccine FAQs

Where can my child get the COVID-19 vaccine in Saskatchewan?

For children 6 months to less than five years old

Community pharmacies cannot provide vaccines to children under five years old.  Children under five will receive their immunizations through Public Health clinics.  For more information about booking an appointment or available walk-in clinics, see the Government of Saskatchewan website, call 1-833-SASKVAX (1-833-727-5829) or book online.

Indigenous Services Canada and Northern Inter-Tribal Health Authority will also be offering vaccine clinics in First Nation and Métis communities.

For children five years and older

COVID-19 vaccinations are available through participating pharmacies, pop-up clinics, and booked appointments.  For more information, see the Government of Saskatchewan website.

Why should we vaccinate children? How does the vaccine provide benefit?

Fortunately, COVID-19 has spared the majority of children from getting really sick. However, there have been children who have gotten very ill from the virus. The risk may be lower, but the risk is still there, and COVID-19 infection can be scary.  

The benefit of vaccines is that our children can get protection without having to risk the serious consequences of getting sick with COVID-19.

In older children and adults, vaccines offer protection from severe outcomes like hospitalization and death.

COVID-19 can cause long-term effects in children. Research from the UK suggested that approximately 1 in 10 school-aged children had symptoms for more than 4 weeks after being infected with COVID-19. 

COVID-19 may lead to multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) – a condition where different parts of the body become inflamed. It’s rare, but it can happen.

Severe outcomes are not predictable and can occur in healthy children. Many children that have been hospitalized had no pre-existing health conditions.

Vaccination is a safe way of protecting children from the risks of COVID-19 infection.

Check out this  infographic from our colleagues at the University of Waterloo and the Health Canada website for more information.


LAST REVIEWED: 08 Aug 2022
Can children get more than one vaccine at a time?
  • Yes. The pediatric COVID-19 vaccines can be given at the same time or any time before or after other vaccines.
  • If more than one vaccine is given at the same time, they'll be given at different sites.


LAST REVIEWED: 06 jul 2023
I’m worried about the risk of myocarditis and pericarditis with mRNA vaccines. What do we know about this risk? 

Both myocarditis and pericarditis have been reported with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination.   

Myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle and pericarditis is inflammation of the lining around the heart.   

Cases that have been reported with COVID-19 vaccination tend to be: 

  • More often after the second dose.
  • Usually within a week after vaccination.
  • More often in males than females and more often in 12-30 years old.  
  • Highest incidence in males aged 16-17 years old. Risk decreases in occurrence down to age 12, therefore, risk in 5-11 year olds is expected to be lower.

Early data suggests a higher rate reported after vaccination with Moderna compared to Pfizer, but the research is ongoing. This may be due to the difference in doses. Data from older age groups also suggests that an interval longer than 21 days between 1st and 2nd dose may also be associated with a reduced risk of myocarditis.

Myocarditis and pericarditis can be caused by a number of things including viral infection, bacterial infection, health conditions, and other medications.   

We have learned that there are different types of myocarditis: 

  • classic myocarditis or “pre COVID-19” myocarditis
  • COVID-19 infection related myocarditis
  • MIS-C myocarditis – MIS-C is an inflammatory illness that has been associated with COVID-19 infection
  • COVID-19 vaccine related myocarditis

COVID-19 vaccine related myocarditis tends to have milder symptoms and resolves much more quickly than the other types of myocarditis. It is treated with anti-inflammatory medications, and hospitalizations are usually short (a day or so) and usually just to keep an eye on the patient. The risk of damage to the heart is much greater with COVID-19 infection myocarditis than it is with vaccine related myocarditis.   

There are a few reasons why children 5-11 years old might be at a lower risk for myocarditis: 

  • Lower incidence in 12-15 years olds versus 16-17 year olds. 
  • Lower dose – we are unsure if dose is related to risk of myocarditis, but it may explain why more cases have been seen with Moderna/Spikevax compared to Pfizer/Comirnaty.  
  • Testosterone is thought to play a role in myocarditis. Since younger children have not hit puberty, this may mean a lower risk.  

We have also learned about the symptoms to watch out for and when to seek medical attention. The symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath and heart palpitations. With medical attention, most people that developed myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination had a quick recovery.   

When considering the risk of myocarditis, it is important to consider the risk of developing myocarditis from COVID-19 infection. The risk of myocarditis with COVID-19 infection may be as high as 450 cases per million infections in males aged 12-17. The rate of myocarditis with mRNA vaccine in 12-17 yo males is around 66.7 cases per million doses.   

Myocarditis can be a scary risk, but it is a very small risk and manageable risk.


LAST REVIEWED: 19 Nov 2021 
What is MIS-C? 
  • Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is an illness where different body parts can become inflamed, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, skin, eyes, or gastrointestinal tract. This has also been reported in adults (MIS-A). 
  • MIS-C has been associated with COVID-19 infection. It generally occurs about 4 weeks after infection with COVID-19. The initial symptoms include fever, rash, diarrhea, and vomiting.   
  • MIS-C is rare and treatable. Most children who get it will eventually get better with medical care, but it can make some children very sick and be quite dangerous.   
  • MIS-C usually affects school-age children. 
  • MIS-C is a possible complication of COVID-19 infection that parents and caregivers should consider when weighing the risk versus benefit of vaccination. Vaccination is a safe way of preventing COVID-19 infection and the possible complications associated with COVID-19 infection. 
  • MIS-C was one of the rare adverse effects that was being monitored in the clinical trials that were done when testing the COVID-19 vaccine in children; no cases were reported in the trials but we needed more information as this is rare. From real-world data, there have been very rare cases following COVID-19 vaccine reported outside of the trials, but we can not say that the vaccine caused the MIS-C.


LAST REVIEWED: 11 Jul 2022
Can children get long COVID? 

Yes. Symptoms of long COVID include fatigue, muscle and joint pain, headache, trouble sleeping, trouble concentrating, and cough. Research from the UK suggested that approximately 1 in 10 school aged children had symptoms for more than 4 weeks after being infected with COVID-19, and 7-8% of children with COVID-19 reported symptoms longer than 12 weeks after being diagnosed. Long COVID can occur after both mild and severe infections. Long COVID can affect mental health, day-to-day function, and school attendance. 

The risk of long COVID is a reason to consider vaccination. 


  • Thomson H. Children with long covid. New Sci. 2021 Feb 27;249(3323):10-11. doi: 10.1016/S0262-4079(21)00303-1. Epub 2021 Mar 3. PMID: 33686318; PMCID: PMC7927578.
  • Say D, Crawford N, McNab S, Wurzel D, Steer A, Tosif S. Post-acute COVID-19 outcomes in children with mild and asymptomatic disease. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 2021 Jun 1;5(6):e22-3.
  • Office for National Statistics United Kingdom. (2021) Prevalence of ongoing symptoms following coronavirus (COVID-19) infection in the UK. Retrieved from Office for National Statistics’ website
  • Office for National Statistics United Kingdom. (2021) Coronavirus (COVID-19) latest insights: Infections. Retrieved from Office for National Statistics’ website
LAST REVIEWED: 18 Nov 2021 
Do I need to be concerned about blood clots with mRNA vaccines? 

There has been a lot of information shared about something called VITT, which is vaccine induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, and it is a condition of blood clots plus low platelets, that occurs following viral vector vaccines. In Canada, the viral vector vaccines are AstraZeneca, COVISHIELD, and Johnson and Johnson. There have not been any reports of blood clots with low platelets or VITT reported in people that have received mRNA vaccines, like the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine. There have been blood clots reported, but at a similar rate to what the usual occurrence of blood clots is. Getting an mRNA vaccine, like the Pfizer vaccine does not put anyone at a higher risk for blood clots.  


LAST REVIEWED: 18 Nov 2021 
Will the COVID-19 vaccine affect my child’s future fertility? I’ve heard that vaccines cause menstrual cycle disruptions and infertility. 
LAST REVIEWED: 18 Nov 2021
What are the long-term side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine? 

Long term side effects are very unlikely to occur because of how our immune system works and because of how vaccines work. The use of vaccines can be traced back to the 18th century and many of the vaccines we use today have been in use for decades. And yes, COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are new, but researchers have been studying mRNA vaccines for flu, Zika, rabies, and cytomegalovirus. The first use of an mRNA vaccine can be traced back to the early 1990’s. mRNA technology is also used in cancer treatment research.  

Here’s a few key points about long term vaccine side effects: 

  • Most of the ingredients in vaccines break down very quickly, and do not stick around in the body. 
  • Most side effects occur because our immune system is responding to the vaccine. 
  • Most side effects occur within the first 6-8 weeks after vaccination. 
  • Vaccines are continually being monitored on many different levels including further research and ongoing surveillance. When rare side effects happen, they are identified and responded to.   


  • Scienceupfirst.  Concerned about Long-Term Side Effects of the COVID-19 vaccines?  2 Nov 2021.  Available from: 
  • Centers for Disease Prevention and Control.  Understanding mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines.  3 Nov 2021. 
  • Plotkin S. History of vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Aug 26;111(34):12283-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1400472111. Epub 2014 Aug 18. PMID: 25136134; PMCID: PMC4151719.
  • Kim YK. RNA Therapy: Current Status and Future Potential. Chonnam Medical Journal. 2020 May;56(2):87-93. DOI: 10.4068/cmj.2020.56.2.87. PMID: 32509554; PMCID: PMC7250668.
  • Stone Jr CA, Rukasin CR, Beachkofsky TM, Phillips EJ. Immune‐mediated adverse reactions to vaccines. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2019 Dec;85(12):2694-706. 
LAST REVIEWED: 18 Nov 2021 
Will vaccinating more people lead to the development of new variants? 

No. Vaccines cannot replicate (or make copies of) the coronavirus. Vaccines only provide instructions to our bodies to make the spike protein that is present on the virus, but they do not actually make the virus.   

Viruses constantly change through mutation. These changes lead to variants of the original virus – some variants disappear quickly while others have advantages that cause them to stick around. Variants develop when the virus infects someone, and then starts to replicate (or make copies of) itself. Mutations (or mistakes) can happen when these copies are being made, which leads to a variant of the original virus.  Variants can develop when the virus is able to spread and replicate quickly.  More infections = more replication = more mutations = more variants. The way to stop the development of variants is to stop the spread of the virus.


  • Dr. A Kurji, Dr. M Brindamour, Dr. M Sarda.  Safe Schools Saskatchewan.  Children and Vaccines Town Hall Oct 13, 2021.  Available from: 
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  COVID-19.  What you Need to Know about Variants.  1 Nov 2021.  Available from:
LAST REVIEWED: 18 Nov 2021 
How can parents/caregivers educate their children about COVID-19 vaccines? How can parents deal with some of the misinformation that may be out there?
  • Talk to your children. Start having the conversations with your younger children if you have not already. By giving them the information first, you have control over the information they are receiving.  
  • Give your children age-appropriate information about the “W’s” of COVID-19 and vaccines:
    • What is COVID, what’s happening in our province and country and world with COVID-19
    • Why we give vaccines
    • Who else has received vaccines
    • Where they will be able to get a vaccine and when it might be their turn
  • Encourage children to come home and talk to you about what they hear at school and from other friends or families.   
  • Do not dismiss what your child is saying to you. Validate their concerns, have a discussion, and answer their questions. Children who do not feel like we are answering their questions may not come to us with more questions as they get older.  
  • Be curious and find information together. If you do not know the answer or are hearing rumors, look it up together using trustworthy resources. This teaches our children how to find safe information in general. Make sure to use a reputable source: ask experts that you trust. An option is to book an appointment with their family doctor or pediatrician to talk about it so that they are getting information from a safe and trusted source.

Here are some links to great information from reliable sources: 


  • Dr. A Kurji, Dr. M Brindamour, Dr. M Sarda.  Safe Schools Saskatchewan.  Children and Vaccines Town Hall Oct 13, 2021.  Available from:
LAST REVIEWED: 18 Nov 2021 
How can I help prepare my child to get a vaccine? What can I do if they are nervous or worried?

Here are some excellent resources to help: 

What can I do to minimize vaccine pain for my child?

Check out the Immunize Canada website for information on what can be done and what can be given to help with vaccine pain.  Click on the links below:

For more information about using numbing creams, click on the links below:

Are mRNA COVID-19 vaccines made with fetal cells?

mRNA COVID-19 vaccines do not contain aborted fetal cells. Fetal cell lines were used in the early development of mRNA vaccines, but fetal cell lines are different from actual fetal cells. Fetal cell lines have been grown in labs for decades and the cells used today do not contain fetal tissue. It is true that fetal tissue obtained in the 1970’s and 1980’s was used to originally start the cell lines.


LAST REVIEWED: 18 Nov 2021 
How do mRNA vaccines work? Can mRNA vaccines change our DNA or lead to cancer? 
  • In answering this question, it is important to understand the science behind mRNA vaccines. The mRNA vaccines work similarly to other vaccines that are being used today. Vaccines help our immune system to recognize viruses so that our bodies are better able to respond to the threat of an infection.  
  • To understand how vaccines work, it helps to understand how infections work. When someone gets a virus, the virus infects the other cells in our body and as part of the invasion, the virus causes our cells to make more and more virus. Our immune system starts to recognize the virus as foreign, and attacks against the virus. We recover from the virus but our immune system keeps a memory of what happened so that if it sees the virus again, it can remember how to attack and prevent the virus from causing severe infection.  
  • COVID-19 has a protein on the outside of it called the spike protein, and that is what allows it to get into our cells. The spike protein is what makes COVID-19 especially infectious. Scientists saw this spike protein as a good target for our immune systems to recognize when they started to look at making a vaccine.  
  • What is a bit different from other vaccines that are being used today is the use of mRNA in some COVID-19 vaccines. The use of mRNA is not new: scientists have been researching how mRNA can be used in medicine for many years. In fact, research into using mRNA specifically for vaccines started as early as the 1990s and the first clinical trial of an mRNA vaccine started in 2006.   
  • mRNA is messenger RNA, it is not DNA, and it does not combine with DNA to change genetics. Rather, it is a messenger, so it is like an email or a text message being sent to your body to turn on the immune system. The mRNA in the COVID-19 vaccines serves as a very specific email or message with specific instructions on how to make the spike protein. The mRNA enters immune cells, the cells read the instructions and make the protein. Our immune system recognises these proteins as foreign and responds by sending out antibodies. These antibodies are what protect us. Our body remembers the protein and how it responded with antibodies, which is typically what our immune system does anytime it comes across something foreign, whether it is from an infection or a vaccine. This process teaches our body how to respond if we actually come into contact with the COVID-19 virus, and we can mount that immune response.  
  • The immune response to a COVID-19 vaccine is similar to what would happen if we actually got an infection. The difference is that the vaccine does not come with the symptoms and potential complications that an infection with COVID-19 does.  
  • The mRNA in COVID-19 vaccines is very specific to only make this specific spike protein. The mRNA does not enter the part of our cells where DNA is stored. mRNA does not stick around in the body. It is not very stable. It breaks down very quickly and within two to three days, it is gone from the body. Long term complications are not possible because the mRNA and all the other vaccine components are quickly eliminated from the body, and the only thing that remains is our immune system memory.   


  • Dr. A Kurji, Dr. M Brindamour, Dr. M Sarda.  Safe Schools Saskatchewan.  Children and Vaccines Town Hall Oct 13, 2021.  Available from:   
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Understanding mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines.  3 Nov 2021.  Available from:   
  • Kim YK. RNA therapy: current status and future potential. Chonnam medical journal. 2020 May;56(2):87.
  • Weide B, Carralot JP, Reese A, et al. Results of the first phase I/II clinical vaccination trial with direct injection of mRNA. Journal of immunotherapy. 2008 Feb 1;31(2):180-8. 
LAST REVIEWED: 18 Nov 2021 
Where else can I learn more about COVID-19 vaccines and vaccinating children?